Ferronsky V.I., Polyakov V.A. Isotopy of the Earth hydrosphere. - M.: Scientific World, 2009. - 632 p.: il. 203

The book presents a discussion of the distribution and hydrogeochemistry and geophysics of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen and radioactive tritium, and carbon and other cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes of the uranium-thorium series, in the oceans and in atmospheric, surface and ground waters. The use of environmental isotopes in three main areas of investigation in the study of natural waters is discussed. These are their genesis, dynamics and residence time in natural res­ervoirs. The origin of the hydrosphere is examined in the light of isotopic, new cosmochemical and recent theoretical results.

The book will be of interest for scientists and researchers who use environmental isotopes in solving scientific and practical problems in fields such as hydrology, hydrogeology, oceanography, meteorology, hydrogeochemistry and cosmochemistry. Lecturers, students and postgraduates of these subjects will also found it useful.

 

 

 

CONTENTS

Preface.............................................................................................................. 13

Introduction...................................................................................................... 15

PART I. STABLE ISOTOPES............................................................................. 23

Chapter 1. Isotope geochemistry of natural waters......................................... 23

Some properties of water and solutions............................................................ 23

Water vapor pressure over water and solution................................................. 27

Physical and chemical foundations of isotope separation................................ 29

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope separation at the phase transition...................... 37

Relationship between the isotope exchange reaction constant

and the fractionation factor.............................................................................. 41

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation at interaction between water

and gases and rocks......................................................................................... 44

Isotope geothermometry................................................................................... 46

Chapter 2. Isotopic composition of ocean water.............................................. 57

Distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and water dynamics................. 57

Effect of evaporation and vertical water exchange.......................................... 62

Dynamics of the ocean water........................................................................... 65

Isotopic composition of ocean water in the past............................................... 70

Chapter 3. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture............................... 75

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation in the hydrological cycle............. 75

Isotopic balance in the global hydrological cycle including vapour

and condensed phase....................................................................................... 85

Isotopic composition of atmospheric water in the past..................................... 91

Chapter 4. Isotopic composition of surface continental water...................... 102

Isotopic balance of the continental water....................................................... 102

Isotopic composition of the river and lake water............................................ 108

Isotopic composition of water in evaporate basins......................................... 114

Chapter 5. Isotopic composition of water of the unsaturated

and saturated zones............................................................................. 122

Relationship between surface water and groundwater.................................... 123

Groundwater recharge at present time............................................................ 125

Groundwater recharge in the past................................................................... 125

Identification of area of groundwater recharge............................................... 126

Relationship between aquifers........................................................................ 131

Mixing of groundwater components of different genesis............................... 133

Residence time of groundwater...................................................................... 135

Relationship of waters in conjugate hydrogeologic basins.............................. 137

Chapter 6. Isotopic composition of formation water..................................... 139

Relationship between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in formation water...... 139

Isotopic composition of formation water in sedimentary basins..................... 145

Chapter 7. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks

and implications for palaeothermometry........................................... 165

Isotopic composition of sediments and pore water......................................... 165

Palaeothermometry based on the isotopic composition of cherts................... 171

Palaeothermometry based on the isotopic composition of carbonate rocks.... 178

Isotopic composition of evaporates................................................................ 185

Chapter 8. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of groundwater

in volcanic regions.............................................................................. 188

Use of isotopes to study the origin of thermal water....................................... 188

Isotopic geothermometers............................................................................... 201

Chapter 9. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition in minerals

of magmatic and metamorphic rocks and fluid inclusions................. 204

Role of water in hydrothermal alteration of the rocks and minerals............... 204

Role of meteoric water in the processes of hydrothermal formation of minerals ....210

Chapter 10. Other stable isotopes in the hydrosphere................................... 215

Stable isotopes of carbon............................................................................... 215

Stable isotopes of sulfur................................................................................. 219

PART II. COSMOGENIC ISOTOPES............................................................... 223

Chapter 11. Origin and production of cosmogenic isotopes.......................... 223

Composition of cosmic radiation in the Earth's atmosphere........................... 223

Composition and steady-state abundances of cosmogenic isotopes

in the outer spheres of the Earth..................................................................... 226

Geospheric distribution of cosmogenic isotopes............................................. 231

Chapter 12. The distribution of tritium.......................................................... 235

Properties of tritium and sources of its occurrence......................................... 235

Global circulation of tritium water.................................................................. 243

Tritium in atmospheric hydrogen and methane............................................... 245

Tritium in atmospheric water vapor................................................................ 248

Tritium in precipitation................................................................................... 251

Global distribution of tritium.......................................................................... 259

Regional distribution of tritium in precipitation.............................................. 264

Formation of tritium concentrations in the atmosphere................................... 276

Tritium in ocean waters.................................................................................. 282

Tritium in surface waters................................................................................ 289

Tritium in ground waters................................................................................ 301

Dating of groundwater using tritium and tritiumgenic helium-3...................... 305

Chapter 13. The distribution of radiocarbon................................................. 311

Origin and distribution of radiocarbon in the nature....................................... 311

Natural variations of radiocarbon in the atmosphere and biosphere............... 317

Natural radiocarbon in the oceans.................................................................. 323

Artificially produced radiocarbon in the atmosphere and oceans................... 327

Forecast of carbon dioxide increase in the atmosphere.................................. 342

Principles of radiocarbon dating..................................................................... 345

Radiocarbon dating of groundwater............................................................... 349

Use of radiocarbon in climate study of groundwater carbonate system.......... 352

Correction of groundwater dating by radiocarbon.......................................... 357

Chapter 14. The other cosmogenic isotopes in natural waters...................... 374

Origin of other cosmogenic radioisotopes in the atmosphere.......................... 374

Distribution of cosmogenic isotopes............................................................... 376

Use of radioisotopes for groundwater dating.................................................. 378

PART III. RADIOGENIC ISOTOPES............................................................... 387

Chapter 15. Production and distribution of radiogenic isotopes................... 387

Geochemistry of radiogenic elements............................................................ 390

Separation of radiogenic elements and isotopes............................................. 396

Distribution of radiogenic elements in natural waters..................................... 400

Chapter 16. Dating of groundwater and sediments........................................ 414

Dating of closed reservoirs............................................................................. 414

Dating of groundwater................................................................................... 418

Dating of sediments........................................................................................ 420

Isotopes of radiogenic elements as indicators of hydrologic processes.......... 426

PART IV. APPLICATIONS.............................................................................. 431

Chapter 17. Applications to the problems of dynamics of natural waters.... 431

Dynamics of moisture in the atmosphere....................................................... 431

Mixing processes in estuaries......................................................................... 440

Water exchange and balance in the river basins, lakes and reservoirs............ 451

Water dynamics in unsaturated and saturated zone........................................ 457

Recharge and discharge of groundwater......................................................... 461

Relationship between the aquifers.................................................................. 468

Separation of recharged water of different genesis in mining......................... 475

Determination of radiocarbon age of groundwater......................................... 477

Determination of flow velocity and direction in regional scale...................... 486

Palaeoclimatic and palaeohydrologic studies.................................................. 489

Chapter 18. Palaeohydrology of the Aral-Caspian basin.............................. 500

Formulation of the problem............................................................................ 500

General description of study in the Caspian Sea............................................. 501

Interpretation of paleoclimatic events............................................................. 513

Study of water regime in the Aral Sea............................................................ 517

Interpretation of bottom sediments study....................................................... 521

Results and conclusions................................................................................. 531

Chapter 19. The nature and mechanism of the Earth shell separation

and origin of the hydrosphere............................................................ 535

Existing approaches to the problem solution.................................................. 535

Separation of deuterium and oxygen-18 in different terrestrial

and cosmic objects......................................................................................... 537

Carbon and sulfur isotopes............................................................................ 548

Chemical differentiation of protoplanetary substances.................................. 555

Recent results of study of the Earth gravitational field by the satellites.......... 567

The nature and mechanism of the Earth shells separation.............................. 569

Self-similarity principle and radial component of non-uniform sphere.......... 570

Charges-like motion of non-uniformities and tangentil component

of the force-function...................................................................................... 572

Separation of the matter relative to its density and creation of the

planets and satellites....................................................................................... 573

Conclusion....................................................................................................... 583

References....................................................................................................... 586

Index................................................................................................................ 628

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

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